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Aim: To provide information on the susceptibility of cigarette smokers to oral diseases. This was achieved by assessing the degree of salivary oxidative stress markers in smokers with or without periodontitis. We measured salivary concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), myeloperoxidase (MPx) activity, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration.
Materials and Methods: About 5 ml of unstimulated saliva was collected into plain bottles from 25 newly diagnosed subjects with periodontitis, 24 smokers without periodontitis, 20 smokers with periodontitis compared with 21 sex/age-matched apparently healthy subjects who are non-smokers and without periodontitis. The samples were collected between 09:00 hours and 11:00 hours at least 1hour after eating or washing of mouth and concentrations of salivary MDA, H2O2 and GSH and salivary MPx, SOD, CAT, GST and GPx activites were determined spectrophotometrically.
Results: Reduced salivary MDA concentration and elevated CAT activity were observed in non-smokers with periodontitis compared with non-smokers without periodontitis. Salivary CAT activity was higher in smokers without periodontitis compared with non-smokers with periodontitis. In contrast, salivary CAT activity was reduced in smokers with periodontitis compared with smokers without periodontitis. Salivary GSH was significantly reduced in smokers with periodontitis compared with non-smokers without periodontitis.
Conclusion: Reduced CAT activity may explain susceptibility of cigarette smokers to oral diseases or progression of periodontitis.
Clinical Significance: Cigarette smoking contributes to the progression of periodontitis and oral diseases.