Open Access Review Article

Alternative Strategies in the Treatment of Clostridioides difficile Infection

Ryan Goon Hon Au

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 38-45
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i430320

Clostridioides difficile (C. diff.) is a leading cause of nosocomial infections worldwide and is a major challenge to public health. Widespread use of antibiotic agents have caused increasing incidence rates of C. diff. infections and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of the potentially-deadly bacteria. The current treatment guidelines include the use of various antibiotics, which further contributes to the problem of antibiotic resistance. There is an urgent need for novel treatment methods in order to halt the emergence of even more antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This review discusses the pathogenesis of C. diff. infections, current treatment strategies, and possible alternative treatment strategies based on breakthrough scientific research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Early Impact of Lockdown on Daily Activity Behaviors and Sleep Pattern in Small Indian Population

Anshu Dwivedi, Saurabh Jaiswal, Shalie Malik, Sangeeta Rani

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i430316

Objectives: Lockdown has resulted in unprecedented changes in daily behaviors including depression. We hypothesized that the lockdown would impact our daily behavior such as sleep-wake cycle, eating time, physical activities, work hours, sleep quality, etc. We also observed the depression among the population during the lockdown.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study was conducted after one month of the imposition of the lockdown (between April 26 – May 05, 2020) by an online questionnaire designed using a google form filled by individuals from different professions (N=251). The analysis was performed using one-way RM ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s multiple analysis post hoc test. Significance was taken at P< 0.0001.

Results: The sleep-wake cycle, breakfast time was significantly delayed during the lockdown compared to weekdays before lockdown days. Total 60% of volunteers reported good sleep, 32% had increased daytime nap, maximum time spent in the usage of social media 29%, and 79% showed increased usage of electronic gadgets. The physical activity and work hours were reduced to 57% and 58% respectively. It seems that lockdown forced people to undergo depression as 54% were depressed.

Conclusion: This is the first study to conclude the changes in daily behaviors including depression. Overall, delay in the sleep-wake cycle, breakfast timings, increased sedentary lifestyle, reduction in their work hours, addiction of electronic gadgets, spending maximum time on social media with increased depression. This study is helpful for the public health systems to create awareness regarding the sleep and health improvements during as well as after lockdown.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of Child’s Nourishment Methodology

Mary Day E. Florano

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 16-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i430318

This research undertaking attempted to determine the Comparative Study of Child’s, Nourishment Methodology in Calbayog City. Specifically, it tried to determine the demographic profile of lactating mothers in terms of their age, number of child, occupation, monthly income, marital status and educational attainment; to determine the status of child nourishment; to identify the attitudes of the lactating mothers towards three (3) feeding practices, namely:  pure breastfeeding, bottle feeding and    mixed feeding; to determine the breastfeeding practices of the lactating mothers; to identify common illness of children from 0 - 2 years old; to find out the significant   difference in the child nourishment methodology when lactating mothers are group   into pure, mixed and bottle fed; to determine significant relationship between the respondent’s demographic profile and their nourishment attitude and practices. A total of 96 lactating mothers with children 0 – 2 years old served as respondents of this study. This study utilized the descriptive – correlation method of research using a set of questionnaire checklist made and validated by the researcher. The statistical tool used was the chi – square test to determine the significant   difference and relationship between independent variables and the dependent variables. The independent variables   included   the demographic profile on age, marital status, occupation, monthly income and educational attainment. Also considered as independent variables were the feeding attitudes and practices of lactating mothers.  The dependent variable on the other hand was the child’s nourishment     categorized   as over nourished, normal, well– nourished and undernourished. Based on actual findings, a majority of the respondents belonged to the stage of young – adulthood, with ages ranging from 26 – 29 years old. Most of them were plain housewives and college graduates. Their income ranged from P500 –2,399. Since most of them are practicing the family planning method, they were found to have only 1 – 2 children and only one (1) respondent had ten (10) children. Most of   the respondents were married and some were single and separated. Concerning the breastfeeding attitudes and practices of   lactating mothers, a majority of them were uncertain when asked about some of the attitudes in breastfeeding.  Their answer pointed out that it causes sagging of the breast, affects mother’s figure, and causes loss of weight for mothers and male infants when breastfed were more obedient and respectful. Most of them strongly agreed about an attitude that breastfeeding is economical and less expensive.  A majority of the respondents disagreed that it increased the size of the other’s breast. Most agreed that breastfeeding helped in preventing   pregnancy.  They also agreed that breastfeeding is   done whenever the   baby demanded for it.  It helped   prevent diarrhea; and it is practical to enhance bonding between the mother and the baby. Most were uncertain that breastfeeding is done to relieve soreness of breast.  Some said it is not done when the mother is angry and the mother should not drink cold water since it stops the flow of breast milk. The common health problems that were identified were the respiratory or gastrointestinal problems which were commonly observed among bottle-fed infants, as well as those who practiced mixed feeding. A significant difference was seen among children when grouped according to feeding method. As to relationship, out of 8 independent variables, six (6) were found to be significantly related, these were the number of children, marital status, monthly income, occupation, attitudes and practices. However, two (2) independent variables such as age and educational attainment were found to be not significant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Comorbidity of Depression and Anxiety among Medical Students in Babcock University, Ogun State, Nigeria

Naomi A. Dike-Israel, Dora O. Akinboye

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 46-55
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i430321

Background: Depression and anxiety are mental health disorders which both result in high negative affect and are two of the most common mental health disorders globally. Stress is one factor implicated in the cause and aggravation of such mental disorders. Medicine is among some of the most stressful courses that a student can undertake in the university.

Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and comorbidity of depression and anxiety among medical students in Ogun state, Nigeria.

Study Design: Cross-sectional survey design

Methodology: 225 medical students (MBBS) aged 15-26 (mean: 19.09±2.14), majority of whom were female (69.8%), attending a private university in Ogun state participated in the study. The levels of depression and anxiety were assessed by administering an instrument comprising of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI).

Results: Findings indicated a prevalence of depression (moderate: 16.0%, severe: 9.8%) and anxiety (moderate: 11.1%, severe: 17.3%). The study revealed significant gender differences in the manifestation of depression (male: 19.1%, female: 28.7%) and anxiety (male: 13.3%, female: 35.0%) indicating that female students are more likely to be diagnosed with both disorders. The study identified a strong positive correlation between depression and anxiety in medical students (r = 0.803).

Conclusion: Depression and anxiety are significantly prominent disorders among medical students. Therefore, sensitization and periodic mental health screening for medical students should be carried out to ensure optimal health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Radiographic Anatomy of the Canine Appendicular Skeleton

Kabkia Dieudoné, Kadja Mireille, Gbande Pihou, Sonhaye Lantam, Agba Kondi

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 56-69
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i430322

Objectives: Being the most common pet in Africa, the dog is often subject to various diseases, especially appendicular. A good knowledge of the normal radiographic anatomy is an important support for the clinician for the interpretation of radiographic pictures of the appendicular skeleton. The aim of this study was to produce a radio-anatomical atlas of the appendicular skeleton of the dog in order to facilitate the understanding and interpretation of radiographic images of the dog.

Methodology: For this purpose, radiographs were performed on all regions of the limbs of healthy dogs received at the radiology room.

Results: At the end of the study, the best normal radiographs by anatomical region and by incidence of normal limb radiographs, were selected constituting a reference database of radiographic anatomy of this animal. Each radiograph is commented and annotated, facilitating the understanding of the pictures.

Conclusion: These radiographs will serve as a basis for the interpretation of radiographic images of the appendicular skeleton in the dog.

Decrease medical as well as financial burden, hence improving the management of cirrhotic patients. These predictors, however, need further work to validate reliability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Government Actions on Safety and Security Perceptions of International Students during COVID-19 Pandemic in China

Shi Yu, George N. Chidimbah Munthali, Wu Xuelian, John Feston Kudzala

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 70-82
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i430323

Introduction: International students’ safety and security matters as they are migrants and foreigners belonging to a special minority group of people that need to be protected each and every time based on diplomatic ties on international endeavors. This study examines the effects of government actions in regards to safety and security perceptions of international students in Hubei Province, China during COVID-19 Pandemic.

Materials and Methods: A cross- sectional survey design was conducted in March 2020 involving 13 different universities in Hubei province of China. Data was collected through an online Microsoft questionnaire which was sent to selected universities that were purposively and conveniently sampled.

Results: 300 questionnaires were received out of 392, representing a response rate of 76.5%. Majority of the respondents were in the age group of <30 years representing 92.3%, almost 96% were single. 79% were undergraduate students, and among these, 64% had stayed in China for over 2 years. It was also revealed that more than half (51.7%) were Christians and more than one third (37%) were muslims. There was a positive correlation between social distance measures and safety and security perceptions while no correlation was found between information dissemination and safety and security perception. Lastly, students were materially supported with their respective authorities and that the political will was good.

Conclusion: The actions of the government especially through the social distance measures have proved to positively increase international students’ safety and security perceptions. Further, authorities tried to facilitate material and social support to the students. We recommend authorities to continue putting the safety and security of international students at their heart as demonstrated in China.

Open Access Case Report

Hydatidiform Mole Coexisting with Healthy and Alive Fetus at Birth: Case Report in Mexico

Juan Carlos Marin Mireles, Carla Eugenia Arenas Alvarez, Adolfo Leyva Lopez, Aldo Guadalupe Bucio Aguilar, Pascal Patric Giuliano Friedlin Villalobos, Daniel Ponce de León Gonzalez

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 30-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i430319

Aims: To describe a case of hydatidiform mole coexisting with healthy and alive fetus at birth in Mexico.

Presentation of Case: A 35 years old pregnant patient at 18+5 weeks of gestational age and a viable fetus by ultrasound, with atypical pneumonia, plus scant bilateral pleural effusion and partial mole implants on admission to hospital. At week 39 of gestation, the pregnancy was interrupted abdominally; a gestation product was obtained, alive, female, and without malformations. The patient did not present complications. The histopathological report of the placenta was compatible with a partial mole.

Discussion: Gestational trophoblastic disease includes partial hydatidiform mole, its occurrence in coexistence with alive and healthy fetus at birth is 0.005-0.01% respect to the total number of pregnancies. The viability of the term of pregnancy will depend on maternal comorbidities, fetalsss well-being and accessible medical surveillance. The ultrasound is the main diagnostic tool. Clinical monitoring is of vital importance after the end of pregnancy, mainly in mother, due to the risk of developing metastatic disease and recurrence of molar pregnancy.

Conclusion: The case report described is relevant, due to its infrequency. In addition, the imaging findings, emphasizes the importance of a complete and adequate evaluation of the placenta and the fetus, in viable gestation conditions in coexistence with partial mole.

Open Access Clinical Practice Article

Retroperitoneal Primary Cystic Tumours: (Case Series of Seven Patients and Literature Review)

Oussama Lafkihq, Saad Rifki El Jai, Erguibi Driss, Rachid Boufettal, Farid Chihab

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 10-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i430317

Primary retroperitoneal cystic tumors include all cystic tumors that arise in the retro and sub peritoneal space independent of the kidney, the excretory tract, the adrenal gland, large vessels and contiguous viscera. We propose a retrospective study of 7 cases of primary retroperitoneal cystic tumors, collected in the department of digestive cancer surgery and liver transplantation at the Ibn Rochd University Hospital in Casablanca over a period of 10 years (2009 to 2019). Our patients are divided into 6 women and 1 man with an average age of 42 years. The diagnostic time varies from 3 months to 3 years with an average of 10 months. The revealing signs are mainly pain (7 cases or 100%) and abdominal mass (3 cases or 43%). The positive diagnosis is based on ultrasound (2 cases or 40%) but above all on computed tomography (7 cases or 100%) which specifies the retroperitoneal site as well as the relationship of the tumor to neighboring organs. Its confirmation can only be histological. Surgery with total resection is the treatment of choice.